Etymologically, Ostara probably shares a common root with the word "east", the direction in which dawn rises.
Many linguists agree that Eostre and Ostara are derived from the Old Teutonic root 'aew-s', 'illuminate, especially of daybreak' and closely related to (a)wes-ter- 'dawn servant', the morning star Venus and *austrôn-, meaning "dawn".Similar words, which it has been suggested are variations of Eostre's name, include Ostare, Ostara, Ostern, Estre, Eostre, Eoster, Eostra, Eastre, Eostur, Eastra, Eastur, Austron, Aurora, and Ausos. There is no certain parallel to Eostre in Old Norse though Grimm speculates that a "spirit of light" named Austri from the Eddas might be related.
According to Bede (c. 672 - 735), writing in De Tempore Ratione ("On the Reckoning of Time"), Ch. xv, "The English months", the word "Easter" is derived from Eostre, an Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring, to whom the month of Eostremonat, corresponding to our April, was dedicated:
"Eosturmonath has a name which is now translated "Paschal month", and which was once called after a goddess of theirs named Eostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month. Now they designate that Paschal season by her name, calling the joys of the new rite by the time-honoured name of the old observance."
What is secure in Bede's passage is that the lunar month around the month of April in the Julian calendar was called the Eostre-monath. And as the Christian tradition of Easter, which has also fallen in April, arrived in some Germanic-speaking regions, the people named the then-unnamed Christian day after the festival, that is, in English as Easter, and in German as Ostern.
In 1835, Jacob Grimm (1785 - 1863) published Deutsche Mythologie, a collection of German myths and oral histories, including extensive commentary on Ostara traditions in Germanic lands. Grimm suggested that various place names in the German Confederation were derived from Ostara's worship, noted the etymological connection between 'Eostre' and 'Ostara', and listed various traditions. Amongst these were the Ostern Hare, Ostara eggs, the Ostara sword, hilltop ceremonies at dawn, and other examples of traditions he believed to be derived from the past worship of Ostara.
The name Ostara was in fact a plural, referring (according to Grimm) to the multiple days of the festival. He proposes that it was also the name of a goddess, but no earlier texts stating this are known. Grimm suggested that the parallels between the names 'Eostre' and 'Ostara', months 'Eostremonat' and 'Ostaramonath', and holidays 'Easter' and 'Ostern' implied a common origin.
Most modern sources describe Eostre's festival as a celebration of the Spring Equinox. Bede, however, never stated this. Eostremonath is a lunar month, and as it starts with the new moon, can begin on a variety of possible dates. Since the Spring Equinox falls on a single date in March, Eostremonath cannot be associated directly with the Spring Equinox.
According to Bede and Einhard, the month Eostremonat/Ostaramanoth was equated with April. This would put the start of 'Ostara's Month' after the Equinox in March. However, it must be taken into account that these 'translations' of calendar months were approximate as the old forms were predominantly lunar months while the new were based on a solar year. As a new moon, signalling the start of a lunar month, does not have a fixed date, it is impossible to equate Eostremonat/Ostaramanoth precisely with the Spring Equinox, which occurs at a relatively precise time and date.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostarahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eostre
The Egyptian name for Isis is "Ast" or "Aset". The connection between this and "Astarte" was known to, and written of, by the Egyptian Christians contemporary while the religions of Ast and Astarte were both thriving. The Romanization of Ast is pronounced "ē sēs". The Babylonian counterpart of Astarte was Ishtar, "ēsh tar". I believe you can find primary source material documents that show that the worshippers of these respective entities did equate them, that this is neither a Roman Imperial gloss nor a Ralph Woodrow fabrication.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Eostre
Eos ("dawn") was, in Greek mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of Oceanus, the Ocean that surrounds the world, to herald her brother Helios, the sun. As the dawn goddess, she opened the gates of heaven (with "rosy fingers") so that Helios could ride his chariot across the sky every day. In Homer (Iliad viii.1; xxiv.695), her yellow robe is embroidered or woven with flowers (Odyssey vi:48 etc); rosy-fingered and with golden arms, she is pictured on Attic vases as a supernaturally beautiful woman, crowned with a tiara or diadem and with the large white-feathered wings of a bird. Eos is the iconic original from which Christian angels were imagined, for no images were available from the Hebrew tradition, and the Persian angels were unknown in the West. The worship of the dawn as a goddess is inherited from Indo-European times; Eos is cognate to Latin Aurora and to Vedic Ushas.
With Aeolus, the keeper of the winds, she bore all the winds and stars.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eos
Ushas, Sanskrit for "dawn", is a Vedic deity. She is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rig Veda. She is portrayed as a beautifully adorned, sexually attractive young woman riding in a chariot. Twenty out of 1028 hymns in the Rig Veda are dedicated to Dawn: Book 7 has seven hymns, books 4–6 have two hymns each, and the younger books 1 and 10 have six and one respectively.
1. The radiant Dawns have risen up for glory, in their white splendour like the waves of waters.
She maketh paths all easy, fair to travel, and, rich, hath shown herself benign and friendly.
2. We see that thou art good: far shines thy lustre; thy beams, thy splendours have flown up to heaven.
Decking thyself, thou makest bare thy bosom, shining in majesty, thou Goddess Morning. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ushas
Hausos was the goddess of dawn in Proto-Indo-European religion. Cognate deities in later related religions include Vedic Ushas, Greek Eos, Roman Aurora, Lithuanian Aušra, and perhaps the Germanic Eostre. As a love goddess, she was also called Wenos - "lust" (which precursed Venus, Vanadis). Also cognate is Old Church Slavonic za ustra "early morning".http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hausos
Old English Earendel appears in glosses as translating iubar "radiance, morning star".
In the Old English poem Crist I are the lines (104–108):
Hail Earendel, brightest of angels,
over Midgard to men sent,
and true radiance of the Sun
bright above the stars, every season
thou of thyself ever illuminest.
The name is here taken to refer to John the Baptist, addressed as the morning star heralding the coming of Christ, the "Sol Invictus". Compare the Blickling Homilies (p. 163, I. 3) which state Nu seo Cristes gebyrd at his aeriste, se niwa eorendel Sanctus Johannes; and nu se leoma thaere sothan sunnan God selfa cuman wille, that is, "And now the birth of Christ (was) at his appearing, and the new eorendel (morning-star) was John the Baptist. And now the gleam of the true Sun, God himself, shall come."
Aurvandil is mentioned once in Norse Mythology, in the Skáldskaparmál section of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda:
Thor went home to Thrúdvangar, and the hone remained sticking in his head. Then came the wise woman who was called Gróa, wife of Aurvandill the Valiant: she sang her spells over Thor until the hone was loosened. But when Thor knew that, and thought that there was hope that the hone might be removed, he desired to reward Gróa for her leech-craft and make her glad, and told her these things: that he had waded from the north over Icy Stream and had borne Aurvandill in a basket on his back from the north out of Jötunheim. And he added for a token, that one of Aurvandill's toes had stuck out of the basket, and became frozen; wherefore Thor broke it off and cast it up into the heavens, and made thereof the star called Aurvandill's Toe. Thor said that it would not be long ere Aurvandill came home: but Gróa was so rejoiced that she forgot her incantations, and the hone was not loosened, and stands yet in Thor's head. Therefore it is forbidden to cast a hone across the floor, for then the hone is stirred in Thor's head.
Guesses as to the identity of this star have included the polestar, the planet Venus, Sirius and the star Rigel which forms the toe of the constellation Orion, though if Aurvandil is to be identified with the constellation Orion one would expect to find Aurvandil himself being translated into the sky, not just his toe.
Old Norse Aurvandil, Old English Éarendel, Lombardic Auriwandalo, German Orentil (or Erentil) are cognate Germanic personal names. Auriwandalo is attested as a historical Lombardic prince. A latinized version, Horvandillus appears as the name of the father of Amleth (Shakespeare's Hamlet) in Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum. German Orentil is the hero of a medieval poem of the same name. He is son of a certain Eigel of Trier and has numerous adventures in the Holy Land. The Old Norse variant appears in purely mythological context, linking the name to a star. The Old English word refers to a star exclusively.
The second element of the name is probably connected to Vendel and the Vandals (preserved in Andalusia "land of the Vandals"). The original Germanic Aurvandil might therefore have been the mythical "Founder of the Vandals", just as Ingve with the Ynglings, Dan with the Danes, Angul with the Angles, Saxneat with the Saxons. Julius Pokorny connects the word with Proto-Germanic *āusōs, Anglo-Saxon Eastre, Easter, East, and ultimately with Hausos (Ushas), the Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess.
Eärendil the Mariner is one of the most important figures in the mythology, a great seafarer who carries the morning star across the sky.
Hesiod: "And after these Erigeneia ["Early-born" and Eos] bore [gave birth to] the star Eosphorus ("Dawn-bringer"), and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned."—Theogony 378-382
Lucifer was originally a Latin word meaning "light-bearer" from lux, "light", and ferre, "to bear, bring". It was a Roman astrological term for the "Morning Star", at that time believed to be the planet Venus. The word Lucifer was the direct translation of the Greek heosphorus "dawn-bearer"; Greek phosphorus, "light-bearer".
Sirius - Sirius is the brightest star in the nighttime sky. It is located in the constellation Canis Major. Its name comes from the Latin sīrius, from Greek σείριος (seirios, "glowing" or "scorcher"). As the major star of the "Big Dog" constellation, it is often called the "Dog Star". Sirius can be seen from every inhabited region of the Earth's surface and, in the Northern Hemisphere, is known as a vertex of the Winter Triangle. Historically, many cultures have attached special significance to Sirius. Sirius was worshipped as Sothis in the valley of the Nile long before Rome was founded, and many ancient Egyptian temples were oriented so that light from the star could penetrate to their inner altars. The Egyptians based their calendar on the heliacal rising of Sirius, which occurred just before the annual flooding of the Nile and the Summer solstice. In Greek mythology, Orion's dog became Sirius. The Greeks also associated Sirius with the heat of summer: they called it Σείριος Seirios, often translated "the scorcher." This also explains the phrase "dog days of summer".
The connection between Sirius and a dog. In Greek culture this became the she-dog of Orion. Gods who ride such animals, notably Shiva and Dionysos, or who have canine servants, notably Orion and Osiris (with Anubis his gatekeeper and embalmer). Dogs associated with various incarnations of Dionysos, as well as with Orion's dog (Sirius), were regarded as the discoverers, or bearers, of the first grapevine, this was probably because Sirius rose in the period of the vines blossoming, shortly before harvest. It also reached its highest point in the sky on around Jan 1st, just before the birth of Dionysos on Jan 6th (epiphany), associated with the opening of the first wine. The universality of Sirius lore, even the Pawnee tribe of North America, and others, referred to Sirius as the 'Wolf Star', indicates this Sothic Mythos may have extremely ancient roots, perhaps as old as the first humans to migrate from Asia.
Sirius rose with the nile flood and was also associated with epidemics, Sothis was thus a destructive and greatly feared goddess. Iachen was said to be an Egyptian magician who 'tamed' the power of Sirius and transformed it into a life giving power (just as the flood fertilised the land of Egypt with fresh nile mud). When Sirius rose the priests of Iachen entered the streets with torches lit from the altar, in order to channel the power of Sirius and heal any diseases unleashed by it. Iachen was known in Minoan Crete as I-wa-ko, who became the Greek torch bearing son of Persephone - Iakchos.
The Dogon people are a tribal people living in Africa whose lore contained pertinent facts as to the form of the Sirius cluster (that it has at least one companion star) and it's characteristics, before modern astronomers made the same discoveries. It is impossible to see Sirius's companion except with very powerful telescopes, and observing at the correct point in Sirius's orbit. They also knew that Saturn had rings and that Jupiter had 4 moons (Jupiter actually has many more, but only 4 can be seen with simple telescopes). This knowledge was the subject of the book The Sirius Mystery by Robert Temple, who linked the legends of the Dogon with the legends and traditions of the ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Sumerians. The Dogon believe than our species was hybridized, and our civilization cultivated by people from Sirius.
They maintained that these people from Sirius were aquatic, or semiaquatic.
Eärendil is a Quenya name, meaning 'Lover of the Sea'.
In Egyptian mythology, Sopdet was the deification of Sothis, a star considered by almost all egyptologists to be Sirius. Just after Sirius appears in the July sky, the Nile River begins its annual flood, and so the ancient Egyptians connected the two. Consequently Sopdet was identified as a goddess of the fertility of the soil, which was brought to it by the Nile's flooding. This significance lead the Egyptians to base their calendar on the heliacal rising of Sirius. Sopdet was regarded as the consort of Sah, the constellation of Orion, by which Sirius appears, and the planet Venus was sometimes considered their child. The noticeably human figure of Orion was eventually identified as a form of Horus, the sky-god, and thus, together with her being a fertility deity, this lead to her being identified as a manifestation of Isis. The name Sopdet means (she who is) sharp, a reference to the brightness of Sirius, which is the brightest star in the night sky. In art she was depicted as a woman with a five-pointed star upon her head.
Venus - The pentagram has long been associated with the planet Venus and the worship of the goddess. It is most likely to have originated from the observations of prehistoric astronomers. When viewed from Earth, the successive conjunctions of Venus plot the points of a pentagram around the Sun in an eight-year cycle.